lookianov (lookianov) wrote,


Perhaps the longest experiment of the world began 130 years ago (see "Science and Life» № 7, 2001) and is not yet finished. American botanist WJ. Bill in 1879 buried in the ground for 20 bottles with seeds of common weeds. Since then periodically (initially every five, then ten, and later - every twenty years), scientists dig up a bottle and check the seeds for germination. Some particularly persistent weeds germinate until now. The next bottle should get in the spring of 2020. The longest experiment in physics began in the Australian city of Brisbane University Professor Thomas Parnell. In 1927 he placed on a tripod in the reinforced glass funnel piece solid resin - vara, which is the molecular properties of the liquid, although very viscous. Parnell then heated funnel to slightly melt the pitch and in the pocket nose cone. In 1938, the first drop fell into the resin substituted Parnell beaker. The second fell in 1947. Autumn of 1948 Professor died, and observation of the funnel continued by his disciples. Since then, the drops fell in 1954, 1962, 1970, 1979, 1988 and 2000. Frequency of falling drops in the past decade has slowed down due to the fact that the lab was mounted air conditioner and cooler. Curiously, not once a drop does not fall in the presence of any of the observers. And even when, in 2000 to funnel mounted web camera to send images to the Internet, at the time of the fall of the eighth and the last drop of the camera today refused! The experience is far from complete, but it is clear that the pitch of one hundred million times more viscous than water. Biosphere 2 It is the largest experiment of falling into our arbitrary list. It was decided to make a working model of the Earth's biosphere. In 1985, more than two hundred American scientists and engineers together to build in the Sonora desert (Arizona), a huge glass building with samples of terrestrial flora and fauna. We planned to hermetically close the building of any proceeds of foreign matter and energy (except the energy of sunlight) and to settle here for two years a team of eight volunteers who were once dubbed "bionavtami." The experiment was intended to examine the links in the natural biosphere and to check the possibility of long-term presence of people in a closed system, such as deep space missions. Oxygen supply were to plant, water, as expected, will be provided by the circulation and biological processes of self-purification, food - plants and animals. The internal floor area (1.3 ha) was divided into three main parts. In the first five specimens housed characteristic of Earth's ecosystems: tropical forest area, "ocean" (salt-water pool), desert, savanna (from flowing through it, "the river") and the swamp. In all of these parts have lodged selected botany and zoology of flora and fauna. The second part of the building took life-support systems: a quarter hectare for the cultivation of edible plants (139 species, excluding tropical fruit of the "forest"), swimming pools for fish (tilapia have as unpretentious, tasty and fast-growing species) and the bay of biological wastewater treatment. Finally, there were living compartments "bionavtov" (each - 33 square meters with a common dining room and living room). Solar panels provide electricity for computers and night lighting. At the end of September 1991 eight "bricked" in a glass greenhouse. And soon the problems began. Weather was unusually cloudy, photosynthesis was less the norm. In addition, the bacteria multiplied in the soil, consuming oxygen, and 16 months of its content in the air down from the normal 21% to 14%. I had to add oxygen from the outside of cylinders. Yields of edible plants were lower than estimated, the population of "Biosphere 2" constantly starving (although in November had to open a grocery NC, for two years of experience the average weight loss was 13%). Gone are populated by insect pollinators (generally died out from 15 to 30% of species), but bred cockroaches, which no one was inhabited. "Bionavty" yet somehow managed to sit in prison planned for two years, but on the whole experiment was unsuccessful. However, he once again showed how delicate and vulnerable to the mechanisms of the biosphere, to ensure our lives. Giant structure now used for some experiments with animals and plants.
Tags: tech
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